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Computer Networking and Telecommunications Research

GSM Mobiles - 2G

GSM_mobiles

Following the launch of the first generation of analogue mobile networks and phones, Europe had become a collection of countries in which each had adopted their own but incompatible systems. Within the UK, two networks were based on the TACs and ETACs standards, Scandinavian countries had adopted the NMT standards, Germany adopted C450 and France used the Radiocom 2000 standard. For a mobile phone user in the UK all of this meant that their phone would stop working at the English Channel!

Yet as early as 1982, three years before the UK's first generation mobile networks were launched, a working group was set up by the European Conference of Post and Telecommunications administrations (CEPT) Telecommunications Commission to harmonise the public mobile communications systems in the 900MHz band. It was called Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) and first met in Stockholm in December 1982. At this point there was no guarantee that the GSM working group would decide upon a digital system, the key focus was to find a single, compatible system that could be rolled out across Europe and which could scale to the projected usage profiles. Needless to say that within the discussions that ensued, the scope of debate - often heated - embraced technical, political and business issues. To find out more about this critically important, but often behind the scenes, phase in the history of the mobile phone, you are recommended to read Stephen Temple's account of his time working at the Department of Trade and Industry representing the UK's interests within GSM (see the links page). The culmination was the publication on 7th September 1987 of a Memorandum of Understanding on the Implementation of a Pan-European 900MHz Digital Cellular Mobile Telecommunications Service by 1991. Signed by telecommunication operators from 13 countries in Copenhagen, this memorandum of understanding would later be described by Chris Gent, the Managing Director of Vodafone, as the most important document in the history of the mobile phone. Europe had set itself on a course to develop a pan-European digital mobile phone system by 1991; the main question now was what technology to adopt? By implication, implementing a new pan-European digital network meant that existing analogue mobile phone networks would eventually be turned off with their frequencies being re-allocated for GSM services.

The UK Government, in response to EU Directive 87/372/EEC, had previously announced that the upper 10MHz of the mobile phone bands (905-915MHz and 950-960MHz) would be reserved for GSM and not be released for further expansion of the first generation analogue TACs networks. Needless to say that with the UK's two mobile phone operators (Vodafone and Cellnet) rolling out their TACs networks, this decision was controversial and ultimately, additional frequencies below 905MHz and 950Mz would be released from military use to ease mobile phone congestion especially in the London area (see analogue mobiles section).

The onward development of GSM was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the final system agreed was based on both frequency and time division multiplexing. The available frequency band for GSM is firstly divided into a series of radio channels, each of which has a bandwidth (low to high frequency difference) of 200kHz. This is the frequency division element and sets of frequencies are allocated to the mobile phone network to ensure that adjacent cells use different frequencies. Transmission within these frequency channels is then shared across several devices using time division multiplexing. Here, within a given radio channel devices are allowed to transmit, but only one at a time, and for a strictly controlled period of time, before the next device is able to transmit and so on. The basic time unit within GSM is known as the burst which is equal to 0.577ms. This time comprises a block of 148 bits that are transmitted at a data rate of 271kbps and a guard band. A sequence of eight consecutive bursts form a GSM frame and 26 consecutive frames constitute a GSM multi-frame. This means that a multi-frame is equivalent to a time period of 120ms and contains 208 bursts. However, of the 26 frames that constitute a multi-frame, two are used for network control purposes and are not therefore available for carrying mobile phone calls or data. Equally, within each burst, only 114 bits are allocated for calls and data. So, if a particular mobile phone was allocated a burst within each available GSM frame, this would equate to an available data rate of 22.8kbps. Within the mobile phone a codec (coder / decoder) is then used to convert the human voice from analogue into digital form for transmission.

The world's first GSM telephone call was made by the Finnish Prime Minister Harri Holkeri on the Radiolinja mobile network in Finland using a Nokia handset on 25th April 1991 and their network became the world's first GSM network when it was officially launched on 1st July 1991. An assessment of the liberalised telecommunications market within the UK suggested that demand existed to accommodate more mobile phone operators but there was insufficient bandwidth to accommodate them. Therefore, an additional frequency band at 1800MHz (1710-1785MHz from the mobile and 1805-1880MHz from the base station) was made available for GSM. Termed Personal Communication Networks (PCN) these new networks were announced by Lord Young, Secretary of State for Trade and Industry on 22nd June 1989 in a document entitled, Phones on the Move. Two licences were ultimately issued which resulted in the creation of two new mobile phone operators; these were Mercury Communications who created the one2one network and Hutchison Telecom who named their network, Orange. Within the UK Vodafone launched the country's first 900MHz GSM network in July 1992 which was followed in September 1993 by Mercury One2One who launched the UK's first 1800MHz GSM network. The other two network providers, Cellnet and Orange launched their GSM networks in December 1993 and April 1994 respectively.

The first GSM approved mobile phone for use within the UK was the Orbitel TPU900 which became available in 1991. In 1992, Motorola launched their first GSM mobile, the Motorola 3200 which resembled in appearance the Motorola 888 (see analogue mobiles section). However, whilst Motorola continued to develop their range of analogue mobile phones, it was claimed that Nokia decided to gamble their company on GSM and move wholesale into the production of digital models. Having previously acquired UK mobile phone manufacturer Technophone, Nokia had become the world's second largest mobile phone manufacturer and launched their first GSM model, the Nokia 1011 on the 10th November 1992.

GSM_large_and_small_SIM_cards

The user identity of a GSM subscriber is contained within a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM card. Initially these were credit card sized (85.60 x 53.98 x 0.76 mm) but as the GSM mobile was developed and made smaller, a miniature version (25 x 15 x 0.76mm) became standard. In addition to recording a subscriber's International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and the network to which it is registered, a SIM card can also store other information such as personal phone book entries.

A digital mobile phone system naturally offered the ability to send data other than voice calls. One of these other digital services was the Short Message Service (SMS) that allowed 160 character (7 bit) messages to be transmitted over the mobile phone signalling channel. Now more commonly called texting, the world's first text message is attributed to two Vodafone employees, Neil Papworth and Richard Jarvis, who sent their Merry Christmas text message on the 3rd December 1992. Our usage of SMS text messaging has been growing steadily ever since with new records being set each year. Today, SMS text messaging is the most widely used mobile data service with the top texting days being Christmas Day, New Year’s Day, Valentine’s Day and GCSE/ A Level results days. For 2009, the Mobile Data Association reported that UK mobile phone subscribers sent a total of 96.8 billion SMS text messages. That’s over 3,000 per second or the equivalent of 4 a day for every person living in the UK! Interesting, the first generation of GSM mobile phones had the ability to receive, but not send SMS text messages. This is because an early use of text messaging was to provide information services that would be broadcast to mobile phone subscribers. However, soon the ability to send messages would become a standard feature followed by the emergence of T9 (text on 9 keys) predictive text functions initially developed by Tegic Communications.

The mid to late 1990s was the time during which the World Wide Web began to emerge which in turn had an important impact on the development of the mobile phone. In June 1997 the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Forum was formed by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia and Openware with the aim of producing a common standard for providing internet access to mobile phones. Providing access to the World Wide Web on a mobile phone is a non-trivial problem for, unlike a PC, the mobile has a small screen size, has limited processing power, restricted graphics, does not use the Internet Protocol (IP) and has a numeric keypad input. In April 1998, WAP 1.0 was released and the Nokia 7110 became the world's first mobile phone to feature a WAP enable browser. Access to the Internet required you first to connect to a data bearer service which typically, included either an SMS message or circuit switched data service. Thereafter you could only read websites that were coded in wml rather than html; hence, organisations needed to maintain multiple versions of their websites. The development of WAP continued with version 1.1 being released in 1999 and version 1.2.1 in 2000. Unfortunately WAP did suffer from an excess of media hype about its capabilities and visions of a fully featured web experience in your pocket were soon replaced with the harsh reality of what was truly possible with a 1990s vintage mobile!

Collection_of_GSM_mobiles

The transition from first generation analogue to second generation digital networks also saw the mobile phone move from being the preserve of the business commercial user to become a must have device for the domestic general user. Mobile phones would soon be seen as an essential part of modern living and for the UK, 1999 was a tipping point when a new mobile phone was being sold at the rate of one every four seconds and ownership doubled to 46% of the population and then reached 73% the year after. Companies would soon start to market the mobile as a device that combined the convenience of being able to keep in touch on the move with a fashion item and entertainment centre. Nokia was one of the first companies to recognise the desire for people to personalise their phones and turn them into entertainment devices. Released in 1994, the Nokia 2110 became the first to use the now famous, indeed iconic, Nokia ringtone; the Nokia 5110 allowed people to change the phone's covers to reflect their mood or style; the Nokia 3210 achieved higher levels of miniaturisation with the adoption of a fully internal aerial; and the Nokia 6110 was the first to feature the cult mobile game, Snake. New businesses emerged to support our thirst for mobile phone covers and downloadable ringtones and games. Further evolution of the mobile would see it acquired more and more functions normally associated with a PC. It started with the Nokia 9000 communicator that combined email, word processor, diary, mobile phone and fully QWERTY keyboard but it was the Ericsson R380 released in 2000 that is now recognised as the first smart-phone.

Advances in mobile phone design were accompanied by new methods of charging for their use. In August 1997 Mercury one2one became the first UK mobile phone operator to offer a pay as you go service. Instead of costly and long term contracts, users could buy they phone and then simply buy an airtime card that contained a fixed amount of call credit, typical £10, £20 or £50. Price plans included the standard pay as you go in which calls started at 30p per minute but decreased to 5p per minute after you had made more than two minutes of calls in a day. Anytime daily plans required you to pay a small daily charge, 50p to 83p and for this your call rates dropped to between 2p and 10p depending on the time of day and you received a fixed number of free call minutes per day. Needless to say all of the other mobile phone operators followed suite with their equivalent service for example, Vodafone's Pay as you Talk.

GSM_Pay_as_you_go_cards

Now enjoy seeing how the digital mobile phone evolved by viewing our collection of these second generation GSM mobiles each of which is organised in approximate chronological order.

   
Nokia_1011

Nokia 1011

The Nokia 1011 (Nokia firmware code NHE-2XN) was released on 10th November (hence, 10-11) 1992 as the world's first commercially available, mass produced GSM mobile phone. It was also marketed as the Nokia Mobira Cityman 2000. The monochrome LCD screen could display two lines of text and the phone book could store 99 telephone numbers and associated names.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

The Nokia 1011 was replaced by the Nokia 2110 in 1994 (see separate entry).


GSM900 single band

Weight = 470g
Dimensions = 175 x 60 x 35 mm
Battery life = 1.5 hours talk time, 12 hours standby

   
Motorola_m300

Motorola m300

The Motorola m300 was one of the first mobile phones to be offered for use on the Mercury one2one digital network when it was launched in 1993. Mercury had approached design consultancy IDEO to develop a mobile that would have a unique appearance, be offered at low cost, be easy to use and have mass appeal. Their design was subsequently manufactured by Motorola as the m300. It was a flip design and had a retractable aerial, although this particular example is showing signs of wear and the aerial is missing.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM1800 single band


Weight = 348g
Dimensions = 155 x 600 x 50mm
Battery life = unknown

   
Orbitel_902_with_box

Orbitel 902 Pocket Phone

Orbitel Mobile Communications was established in 1987 in Basingstoke, UK, as a joint venture between Plessey Corporation and Racal Telecommunications with each owning a 50% share however, Racal eventually bought out Plessey to fully own the company. Orbitel was setup to manufacture and supply analogue mobile phones to Vodafone (also owned by Racal). However, they became heavily involved in research and development of GSM in their own right leading to the launch of tan independent range of GSM mobiles. In 1991 Racal Telecommunications announced that L M Ericsson was acquiring a 50% share in Orbitel for £45 million. Ericsson subsequently took over the entire company in 1996 resulting in Orbitel becoming Ericsson Mobile Platforms.

At the Comex 1993 conference and exhibition in London, Orbitel announced their 902 Pocket Phone. It had a monochrome screen that could display 12 x 4 characters. The phone book allowed for up to 99 telephone numbers and associated names to be stored in the SIM card and a further 100 entries in the phone's memory. A call register kept details of the most recent 5 dialled calls and call timers recorded the duration of the last call and a cumulative total. The Orbitel 902 could also receive, but not send SMS text messages.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 290g
Dimensions = 97 x 48 x 18.4 mm
Battery life = 1.25 hours talk time, 12 hours standby

   
Motorola_MicroTAC_5200

Motorola Micro-TAC 5200

Following on from the success of the Motorola micro-TAC analogue mobile phone, the Micro-TAC 5200 was released in 1994 and represented Motorola’s move to GSM. It was however, a basic featured phone that in addition to the standard set of phone functions offered an address book that could store up to 100 telephone numbers and associated names within the phone's memory. The Micro-TAC 5200 also provided a range of call timers and could both send and receive SMS text messages.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 268g
Dimensions = 160 x 60 x 38 mm
Battery life = unknown

   
Motorola_MicroTAC_8200_international

Motorola Micro-TAC 8200 International

The Motorola Micro-TAC 8200 International was a further development of Motorola's GSM range of mobiles, following on from the 5200. It was launched in 1994.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 241g
Dimensions = 140 x 60 x 27 mm
Battery life = unknown

   
Nokia_2010

Nokia 2010

The Nokia 2010 (Nokia firmware code NHE-3DN) was released in 1994. It was a basic featured phone that included support for the sending and receiving of SMS text messages.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 275g
Dimensions = 58 x 165 x 28 mm
Battery life = 1 hour talk time, 20 hours standby

   

Nokia_2110

Nokia_2110i

Nokia 2110

The Nokia 2110 was released in 1994 and is most famous for being part of the first range of Nokia mobiles to feature the now iconic Nokia Tune ringtone. The Nokia Tune is actually based on a guitar work named Gran Vals by Spanish musician Francisco Tárrega written in 1902. Originally called Grand Valse on Nokia phones, it later (about 1998) became simply the Nokia Tune after having gained enormous popularity.

The Nokia 2110 had a monochrome screen that could display 4 x 13 characters with a range of fixed icons including a battery and signal strength meter and envelope icon to show that an SMS or voice message had been received. The address book could store up to 125 telephone numbers and associated names within the phone's memory, with additional storage provided within the SIM card. Speed dial access was provided for the first 9 memory locations. A range of menus and two soft menu selection keys gave access to other functions. These included call logs which recorded the last ten dialled, received and missed calls; call timers; ring tone and other tone volume controls; ring tone selection which included a vibrate option; and features for managing the sending and receipt of SMS text messages.

On 26th February 1996, the Nokia 2110 was voted the outstanding phone of the year by participants at the GSM World Conference in Cannes. This was in fact the tenth award for the Nokia 2110. Other awards included Business Week magazine's product of the year for 1995, a Cellnet Caesar Award for best performance and selection as the USA Home Office Computing Magazine Editors' Pick in January 1996.

Two examples of the Nokia 2110 are shown here. The upper image is a Nokia 2110 (Nokia firmware code NHE-1NX) and the lower image is a Nokia 2110i (Nokia firmware code NHE-4NX) which was a slightly upgraded version; the most notable external difference being the design of the retractable antenna.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 236g
Dimensions = 148 x 56 x 25 mm
Battery life = 2.6 hours talk time, 30 hours standby

   
BT_Roamer_500_with_Manual

BT Roamer 500

This BT Roamer 500 was introduced in 1995 and is actually a branded version of the Alcatel HC600. As it can be seen from the front cover the manual, this phone is missing its external aerial.

It provided two dialling number memories, each of which could store up to 50 telephone numbers and associated names with the further option of storing up to 20 entries on the SIM card. The Roamer 500 also included a basic function calculator, a 24 hour clock and a range of call timers. The phone could also receive, but not send, SMS text messages.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 220g
Dimensions = 163 x 60 x 21 mm
Battery life = 1.25 hours talk time, 22 hours standby

   
Motorola_mr1

Motorola mr 1

The Motorola mr1 was a specifically designed for the Orange network and became available to customers on 28th April 1994. In particular it supported Orange's incoming caller ID function and their line two option. It is a flip design mobile that uses the credit card sized SIM, has an LCD screen that can display two lines of text, a phone book that can store up to 180 names and numbers and the ability to receive but not send SMS text messages. It was superseded in 1996 by the mr20, a rebranded version of the Motorola fLaRe (see separate entry).

GSM1800 single band

Weight = 264g
Dimensions = 150 x 60 x38
Battery life = 1 hour talk time, 11 hours standby

   
Motorola_m301

Motorola m301

The Motorola m301 was introduced in 1995 specifically for the Mercury one2one network where it succeeded the Motorola M300. Its LCD screen could display two lines of text with an additional icon for signal strength. The address book could store up to 99 telephone numbers and associated names with fast dial access and last number redial.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM1800 single band

Weight = 294g
Dimensions = 150 x 60 x 35 mm
Battery life = 1 hour and 10 minutes talk time, 12 hours standby

 


Motorola_fLaRe

Motorola_fLaRe

Motorola_mr20

Motorola fLaRe

The Motorola fLaRe family became available in 1995. They utilised the main Motorola Micro-TAC phone body, but dispensed with the flip. These were basic featured phones that had an LCD screen that could display 2 rows of 12 alphanumeric characters and additional icons. The phone's address book could store up to 100 telephone numbers and associated names. Call logs recorded the last 10 calls made and received and call meters recorded duration of a call and a running total of all calls made. Finally, the fLaRe could receive but not send SMS text messages.

Three examples from the fLaRe family are shown here. The uppermost photograph is a Motorola 6200 Flare that was offered in four colour choices of yellow, blue, green or fuchsia on black. The central photograph is also a Motorola 6200 fLaRe but has a different keypad and ear-piece design and must therefore be a different model number however, the precise difference between these two mobiles is not known.

The lower photograph is a Motorola DCS fLaRe which was released in 1996 for use on the Orange network where it was branded as the Motorola mr20 where it succeeded the Motorola mr1.

GSM900 single band
(Motorola 6200 fLaRe)
GSM1800 single band
(Motorola DCS fLaRe / mr20)

Weight = 250g
Dimensions = 142 x 59 x 37 mm
Battery life = 1 hour talk time, 12 hours standby

   

Bosch_CarTel_SL2G2

Bosch_carTel_box

Bosch CarTel SL2G2

Robert Bosch GmbH began manufacturing mobile phones in the 1980 within its telecommunications division. They introduced their Handfunktelefon or Handy range which included models such as the analogue Bosch Handy C9 which was intended to compete with Motorola's MicroTAC. However, the Bosch mobile phone division was sold to Siemens in 2000.

The Bosch CarTel SL2G shown here was released in 1995. In addition to the standard phone functions, it provided an address book memory for storage of up to 100 telephone numbers with associated names with the option of storing additional numbers on the SIM card. The screen could display 2 x 12 characters with additional icons such as signal and battery strength meters. There were a range of call timers provider and the CarTel would both send and receive SMS messages.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 215g
Dimensions = 58 x 141 x 30mm
Battery life = unknown

   
Nokia_2140

Nokia 2140

The Nokia 2140 (Nokia firmware code NHK-1XA) was launched exclusively for the Orange network and became available to customers on 28th April 1994. It had a LCD screen that could display 4 lines of text. It also supported data and fax at 9600bps and provided network features such as caller ID, easy access to the answer phone service and two line working. The Nokia 2140 is believed to be a derivative of the Nokia 2110 specifically for the Orange network and was replaced by the Nokia 5.1 (see separate entry).
Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM 1800 single band

Weight = 240g
Dimensions = 147 x 54 x 22mm
Battery life = 1.3 hours talk time, 18 hours standby

   
AEG_m150_with_manual_and_sim_card

AEG m150

The AEG m150 was released in 1995 for use on the Mercury one2one network. Mercury one2one was the UK's third mobile phone network when it launched in 1993 with its GSM1800MHz service. The m150 was a basic featured phone that in addition to the standard phone functions, provided a telephone directory for the storage of numbers and associated names either within the phone's memory or the SIM card which was actually known as your Mercury SmartCard.

GSM1800 single band

Weight = 250g
Dimensions = 192 x 58 x 22mm
Battery life = 1 hour talk time, 12 hours standby

   
Ericsson_GH337

Ericsson GH337

The Ericsson GH337 was introduced in 1995. It had an alphanumeric display of 3 x 12 characters with fixed icons and could receive but not send SMS text messages.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 193g
Dimensions = 130 x 49 x 24 mm
Battery life = 1 hour and 50 minutes talk time, 25 hours standby

   
Panasonic_EB-G400

Panasonic EB-G400

Panasonic began life as Matsushita Electrical Industries in 1918 changing its name to the Panasonic Corporation in 2008. Their mobile phone products were also marketed in the UK under the name Matsushita Communication Industrial UK Limited.

The Panasonic G400 was introduced in 1996.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 197g
Dimensions = 142 x 46 x 24mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 24 hours standby

 


Nokia 8110 / Nokia 8110i

The Nokia 8110 (Nokia firmware code NHE-6BX) was released in 1996 and was Nokia's first slide form factor mobile whereby a sliding cover protected the keypad and was moved downwards to give access to the keys and to bring the microphone closer to your mouth. Nokia claimed that it was the first mobile to be uniquely designed to fit the contour of the human face. Consequently, the side profile of the mobile had a distinctive curved appearance which became more prominent when the slide was opened thereby earning it the nickname of a banana phone.

In order to address a broader international marker, the Nokia 8110 was one of the first Nokia mobiles to feature the Asian language in addition to English. Based on the Nokia 3110 (see separate entry), the Nokia 8110 was also the first Nokia mobile with a dot matrix full graphic display that changed the text size automatically for easy viewing. The phone book stored telephone numbers and associated names either in the phone's memory where 125 entries could be stored or on the SIM card where a further 199 entries could be stored. Call registers recorded the most recent 10 dialled, missed and received calls and there was a choice of 16 pre-loaded ring tones.

The upgraded Nokia 8110i model (Nokia firmware code NHE-6BM) was released in early 1997 and was the first mobile to support Nokia's Smart Messaging which offered access to a wide range of new applications, information services and the Internet via the Nokia Netgate web viewer. This technology was in effect a precursor to the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and was subsequently discontinued by Nokia in favour of the widespread adoption of WAP. It was also the first Nokia mobile to support downloadable ring tones.

However, the Nokia 8110i is probably best known as the Matrix phone after it was used by Neo in the 1999 feature film, The Matrix. In fact the version of the Nokia 8110i used in that film was slightly modified to include a sprung loaded slider; a feature that would later be incorporated in the Nokia 7110 (see separate entry).

Both models are shown here; the Nokia 8110 has its slider closed whereas the Nokia 8110i is shown with its slider open.

GSM 900 single band

Weight = 151g
Dimensions = 141 x 48 x 25 mm,
Battery life = 5 hours talk time, 150 hours standby

   
Philips_Fizz_with_manual

Philips Fizz

The Philips Fizz (TCD 312) was introduced in 1996 and was a basic featured phone. It had a monochrome screen that could display 3 x 12 characters with fixed icons. The phone book stored telephone numbers and associated names within the SIM card. Call registers logged the last 10 dialled calls and the last 10 received calls, including both answered and missed calls. Call timers recorded the duration of the most recent call together with a cumulative total. Finally, the mobile could both send and receive SMS text messages.


GSM 900 single band

Weight = 169g
Dimensions = 162 x 60 x 17 mm
Battery life = 1 hour talk time, 45 hours standby

   
Nortel_Nevada

Nortel Nevada

Nortel was founded in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company supplying telecommunications equipment to Canada's new telephone network. From those beginnings it grew to become a major international provider of telecommunications equipment, changing its name to Northern Telecom Ltd in 1976 and to Nortel Networks Corporation in 1998. Unfortunately Nortel suffered a series of financial problems which resulted in it announcing in June 2009 that it was to cease operations and sell off its constituent businesses.

The Nortel Nevada was released in 1996 and is believed to be a re-branded version of the Nortel 2000 for the mercury one2one network. Just below the screen it carries the PAC logo depicting the fact that this mobile was for the Personal Communications Network, 1800MHz network, created exclusively for GSM digital services.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM1800 single band

Weight = 98g
Dimensions = 92 x 41 x 21 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 104 hours standby

   
Orbitel_905

Orbitel 905

Orbitel Mobile Communications was established in 1987 in Basingstoke, UK, as a joint venture between Plessey Corporation and Racal Telecommunications with each owning a 50% share however, Racal eventually bought out Plessey to fully own the company. Orbitel was setup to manufacture and supply analogue mobile phones to Vodafone (also owned by Racal). However, they became heavily involved in research and development of GSM in their own right leading to the launch of tan independent range of GSM mobiles. In 1991 Racal Telecommunications announced that L M Ericsson was acquiring a 50% share in Orbitel for £45 million. Ericsson subsequently took over the entire company in 1996 resulting in Orbitel becoming Ericsson Mobile Platforms.

The Orbitel 905 was launched in 1996 and was able to both send and receive SMS text messages.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 245g
Dimensions = 145 x 59 x 18 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 25 hours standby

   
Nokia_1610

Nokia 1610

The Nokia 1610 (Nokia firmware code NHE-5NX) was released in 1996 and marketed as a phone for first time buyers. Mr Anssi Vanjoki, Nokia Mobile Phones' Senior Vice President, Sales, Europe and Africa, claimed that the Nokia 1610's impressive performance in talk time and standby time – presently the longest on the market – would make this phone a real seller in GSM markets. The monochrome LCD screen could display 2 lines of text. A phone book could store up to 199 telephone numbers and associated names with one-touch dialling being configurable against eight of these entries. The Nokia 1610 also supported the sending and receiving of SMS text messages.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 250g
Dimensions = 160 x 58 x 28 mm
Battery life = 7 hours talk time, 200 hours standby

   

Ericsson_GA628

Ericsson_Ga628_with_Chatboard_attached

Ericsson GA628

The Ericsson GA628 was introduced in 1996 and was a basic featured phone. An address book could store up to 99 telephone numbers with associated names in memory with additional storage capacity within the SIM card. The first 9 entries in the address book could be accessed using keypad speed dialling and a record is kept of the most recent 5 calls made. The GA628 could send and receive SMS text messages and provided a range of call timers. Personalisation took the form of choosing from a range of pre-load ringer tones and by changing the front cover plate around the keypad; new covers were available in red, blue, green and yellow.

The lower picture shows the GA628 with an Ericsson Chatboard attached. Depending on the mobile to which it was attached, the Chatboard gave direct access through a QWERTY keyboard to SMS, email, www, and phonebook functions.

GSM 900 single band

Weight = 160g
Dimensions = 130 x 49 x 28mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 83 hours standby

   

Nokia_9000_Communicator_(closed)

Nokia_9000_Communicator_(open)

 

Nokia 9000 Communicator

The Nokia 9000 was announced at the CeBIT exhibition in 1996 as the first in their communicator range and the world's first all-in-one mobile communications tool. It had two interfaces, the phone interface shown in the upper picture in which it functioned as a conventional mobile phone and the communicator interface shown in the lower picture where it opened to reveal a full QWERTY keyboard and large screen. Nokia used the term interfaces to stress the point that these two functions were being provided by the same underlying hardware and that this device was not simply two devices enclosed within the same case. So, your address book on the phone interface was the same as the contacts within the communicator interface and so on. Internally it had 8MB of memory of which 4 MB was used for its GEOSTM 3.0 operating system, 2 MB for programs and 2 MB for user data and it was powered by an Intel 24MHz 386 microprocessor.

In addition to all of the basic phone, address book (contacts) and SMS functions, the Nokia 9000 had a document handling and editing feature called Notes, a fully featured calendar and diary application, a clock showing world time and including an alarm, Composer for creating your own ringtones and alerts, a currency converter and connection to a PC via an Infra-red port through which documents could be exchanged and software downloaded and installed. However, the most important feature was the provision of Internet and WWW services provided using Nokia's Smart Messaging – a precursor to the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). These services were supported through a Nokia web browser, an SMTP, MIME and POP3 compliant email client, and Telnet and Terminal programs for remote access to computing services using VT100 emulation. It must be remembered that in the late 1990s when the Nokia 9000 was launched, the web was still in its infancy and so providing fully integrated Internet and WWW access within a mobile was very much at the technological cutting edge.

The revolutionary, futuristic and innovative design of the Nokia 9000 saw it starring in the 1997 feature film, The Saint, released by Paramount Pictures. In the film the Saint was played by Val Kilmer and he is seen using the Nokia 9000 throughout the film to get out of tight situations.

The Nokia Communicator range continued with the:
• Nokia 9110i released in 1999
• Nokia 9210 released in 2000
• Nokia 9210i released in 2002
• Nokia 9300 released in 2004
• Nokia 9500 released in 2004
• Nokia E90 released in 2007

The version shown here is a Nokia 9000 released for use on the Orange network (Nokia firmware code RAK-1N).

GSM 900 MHz

Weight = 397g
Dimensions = 173 x 64 x 38 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 35 hours standby

   
Nokia_5.1

Nokia 5.1

The Nokia 5.1 (Nokia firmware code NHK-4RY) was released in 1996 exclusively on the Orange network and was a development of the Nokia 2140 (see separate entry). The screen was monochrome and could display 4 lines of characters. The phone book stored telephone numbers and associated names in either the phone's memory or the SIM card. A total of 125 entries could be stored in the phone's memory and a further 90 in the SIM card. Speed dialling was provided for 8 entries using the keys 2 to 9; key 1 gave direct answer to the Orange Answer Phone service.

The call register logged the most recent 10 dialled, missed and received calls and a timer recorded the duration of the last call and a cumulative total for all calls made since the last time the timer was reset. In addition, the Nokia 5.1 could send and receive SMS text messages, offered a choice of 8 ring tones and had a countdown timer.

GSM1800 single band

Weight = 240g
Dimensions = 147 x 55 x 25 mm
Battery life = 1.3 hours talk time, 22 hours standby

   

Motorola_StarTAC_85

 

Motorola_StarTAC_mr501_and_StarTAC_130_and_StarTAC_7860

Motorola StarTAC

Following on from the launch of the AMPS analogue Motorola StarTAC in 1996 (see analogue mobiles section), a version for use on digital (second generation) networks was released in 1997. One of the problems with the Motorola StarTAC however, is that most are not marked with a model number thereby making them hard to identify. One distinguishing feature though, is the layout of the keypad. Based on this, the upper image is believed to be a StarTAC 85 which was released in 1997 for use on GSM 900 networks. The lower image shows three StarTACs, each with a different keypad layout. The one on the left is clearly marked as a StarTAC mr501 which was launched in 1997 for use on the Orange GSM 1800 network; the one in the centre is believed to be a StarTAC 130 which was released in 1997 for use on GSM 900 networks; and the one on the right carries the branding of American Wireless and is believed to be a StarTAC 7860 released in 1999 for the digital AMPS networks in the USA.

Despite its revolutionary clamshell design and distinctive extending aerial, the StarTAC was a relatively basic featured phone. The monochrome LCD screen could display 4 lines of alphanumeric characters with additional fixed icons. The phone book could store up to 100 telephone numbers and associated names within the phone's memory and easy access to these was provided by a smart button and two scroll buttons located on the left had side of the phone (not present on the original analogue models). Single key, quick dial access was provided for the first 9 entries in the phone book. In addition, you could customise the phone through the selection of pre-loaded ring tones or opt to use the VibraCall vibrating mode. There was a call log that recorded the last 10 calls made and received, a clock which provided date and time, a range of call meters, a battery charge meter and support for sending and receiving SMS text messages.

The StarTAC 7860 included a mini-browser for accessing network provided information services and offered dual support for both digital and analogue networks. It could also be attached to the serial port of a PC for synchronisation using Motorola's TrueSync software.

Over 60 million StarTACs were sold during its lifetime and in 2005, PC World magazine rated the Motorola StarTAC at number 6 in a list of the 50 Greatest Gadgets of the Past 50 Years.

GSM 900 / GSM 1800 / D-AMPS single band versions

Weight = 122g
Dimensions = 95 x 56 x 28 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 75 hours standby

   
Nokia_3110

Nokia 3110

The Nokia 3110 (Nokia firmware code NHE-8) was announced at the CeBIT exhibition in Hannover, Germany in 1997 and was the first Nokia to feature their Navi-Key menu navigation system. Nokia proclaimed that the 3110 offered the ultimate ease of use with a unique one-key access to functions. The Navi Key is the large button immediately below the screen and its function varied in line with the text displayed above it. The monochrome screen could display 4 x 13 characters with variable font size.

The phone book could store up to 250 telephone numbers and associated names using the SIM card. Speed dialling was provided for nine of these entries using keys 1 to 9; you pressed the key once and then the Navi-Key button to make the call. Alternatively, one touch dialling was available for eight entries whereby holding down key 2 to 9 automatically called the number. The use of key 1 in this mode was reserved to call the network service provider's voice mail service.

The Nokia 3110 supported SMS text messaging, call registers recorded the most recent 5 dialled, received and missed calls and call timers recorded the duration of the last dialled or received call together with a cumulative total. In addition you could personalise the phone by selecting one of the 25 preloaded ring tones.

It was superseded by the Nokia 3210 (see separate entry).

GSM900 single band

Weight = 187g
Dimensions = 136 x 45 x 21 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 70 hours standby

   
Motorola_mr601

Motorola mr601

The Motorola mr601 was released in 1997 as a re-branded Motorola MicroTAC International 8800 (Mc1-41a11) for exclusive use on the Orange network. The key feature of this mobile is that it was the first dual band GSM phone released in the UK, being able to operate on both the GSM900 and GSM1800 bands. Initially known as the Personal Communications Network standard, the GSM1800 band was exclusively for digital services but lagged somewhat behind the more widespread adoption and deployment of GSM900 networks. The Motorola mr601 therefore provided international roaming with customers being able to access networks in over 70 countries by the end of 1997 using the same handset. Although the mr601 could only operate one network at a time, switching between the two was easily achieved through a few key presses.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM900 and GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 211g
Dimensions = 130 x 59 x 23 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 80 hours standby

   
NEC_G9

NEC G9

NEC was founded in 1899 as the Nippon Electric Company specialising in telephone and switching systems. Today, NEC is a global supplier of communications products and semiconductors.

The NEC G9 was introduced in 1997 and had an alphanumeric monochrome display of 4 x 12 characters in size. In addition to the basic phone functions, it included a clock with alarm, a range of call timers and 7 ring tones. An address book feature was supported in which telephone numbers and associated names could be stored within the SIM card memory only. It could also support the sending and receiving of SMS text messages.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 200g
Dimensions = 145 x 49 x 22.5 mm
Battery life = 1.8 hours talk time, 28 hours standby

   
Philips_TCD308_Diga

Philips TCD308 diga

The Philips diga (TCD308) was introduced in 1997. It had a removable slider that protected the majority of the keyboard but did not cover the top two rows of keys, thereby allowing calls to be answered and made from the phone book without moving the slider.

The monochrome screen could display a single line of text with additional fixed icons. The phone book comprised a name list that stored telephone numbers and associated names within the SIM card. The main keypad keys 1 to 9 could be configured as hot keys whereby specific functions were activated by holding one of the keys down. For example, key 1 could call the answer phone, each could be defined as a flash dial key for a name list entry, another could turn the ringer off, another could redial the last called number etc. In total there were 21 functions that could be assigned to a hot key. The call registered logged that last 10 dialled calls and the last 10 received calls including both answered and missed calls. Call timers recorded the duration of the most recent call together with a cumulative total. There was a choice of 8 different ring tones and the Philips diga was able to both send and receive SMS text messages.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 179 g
Dimensions = 147 x 56 x 19 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 85 hours standby

   

Maxon MX-3204 / MN-1

Maxon was founded in 1974 in Seoul, Korea and changed its name to Maxon Telecom in 2000. Maxon Cellular Systems A/S was created in 1987 in Denmark as a subsidiary to Maxon Telecom with specific responsibility for research and development into GSM mobile phone technology and products. Subsequently Maxon Cellular Systems A/S was re-branded as Maxon Telecom A/S.

The Maxon MX-3204 was released in 1997 and as this example shows, was made available for use on the Vodafone network where it was branded as the Maxon MN-1. It had a distinctive curved shape, was offered in a range of colours including black, red, silver, Persian blue and this metallic gold/bronze. Four main navigation buttons were arranged for ease of use in a circular formation at the top of the keypad.

The monochrome screen could display 4 x 12 characters with fixed icons. An LED indicator on the top edge of the phone provided a status indicator that was red when the phone was not connected to the network or had a low battery; green when connected to a network; and yellow when the battery was discharging. The phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names in the SIM card. Support was provided for the sending and receiving of SMS text messages and commonly used message types could be stored as templates. A call list recorded recently dialled and received calls and timers recorded the duration of the last dialled call and a cumulative total.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 170 g
Dimensions = 131 x 45 x 21 mm
Battery = 2 hours talk time, 50 hours standby

   
Nokia_6110

Nokia 6110

The Nokia 6110 (Nokia firmware code NSE-3NX) was a development of the Nokia 2110 designed for the business market and launched in 1997. It had a monochrome screen that could display 5 lines and included an infra-red port for local communications. The phone could store telephone numbers and associated names using either the phone's internal memory which could store up to 50 entries or the SIM card's memory where up a 250 entries could be stored. A specific ring tone and graphic could be assigned to an entry should that these would be played and displayed when receiving calls. Speed dialling was provided for nine entries using the keypad keys 1 to 9. Call registers recorded the last ten missed, received and dialled numbers and call timers recorded the duration of individual calls and the cumulative totals. Other functions included a clock with alarm, a calendar and calculator.

The infra-red port could be used to communicate with similar phones or peripherals such as printers that were within line of sight range. This featured enabled the transfer of phone book entries, remote printing and an option to extend the built in games to 2 player mode.

It was however, the introduction of built in games that gives the Nokia 6110 a unique place in history for it was the first Nokia phone to feature a mobile version of the popular computer game, Snake. Snake required you to control a pixelated snake as it moved around the screen, feeding it to make it grow bigger but all the time ensuring that it never caught its own tail! This game proved incredibly popular, being loaded onto millions of mobiles and it has even been successes that it kick-started the whole mobile gaming business. Two other games were also launched at the same time and came preloaded on the Nokia 6110. These were Logic which involved working out combinations of symbols and Memory which requires you to match up pairs of symbols that are hidden beneath cards within the least number of moves.

The Nokia 6110 was also developed into a model for the general consumer market where it appeared as the Nokia 5110 (see separate entry).

GSM900 single band

Weight = 137g
Dimensions = 130 x 47 x 28mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 180 hours standby

   
Ericsson_GF768

Ericsson GF768

The Swedish company Ericsson was founded in 1876 by Lars Magnus Ericsson to manufacture telegraphy equipment. They subsequently expanded into telephony and telephone exchanges before entering the mobile phone market where Ericsson established itself as the world's number three manufacturer before a series of problems led to a decline. It was this change in fortune that stimulated the formation of a joint venture with the Sony Corporation on 1st October 2001 thereby forming Sony Ericsson.

The Ericsson GF768 flip phone was released in 1997. Its screen could display 1 x 10 characters with fixed icons. The phone book could store up to 50 telephone numbers and associated names in the phone's memory with additional storage in the SIM card. Speed dialling was provided for nine of the phone book entries, assigning them to keypad keys 1 to 9. In addition to the preloaded ring tones, there was also a Note System feature which allowed you to create your melodies. A call register monitored the last 5 dialled numbers and timers recorded the duration of the most recent call together with a cumulative total. There was support for both sending and receiving SMS text messages and the GF768 also had a clock with alarm.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 135g
Dimensions = 105 x 49 x 23 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 60 hours standby

   
 Alcatel_One_Touch_Pro_(HD2)_with_SIM_card

Alcatel One Touch Pro (HD2)

Alcatel has a long established history in telecommunications which was strengthened in 1986 with the acquisition of the European division of ITT. In 1998 Alcatel Alsthom as it was known then, split into Alsthom and Alcatel with Alcatel focusing solely on telecommunications. Further acquisitions followed and on 1st December 2006, Alcatel-Lucent was formed following a merger with Lucent Technologies which itself had evolved from AT&T.

The Alcatel HD2 One Touch Pro was introduced in 1998 and the model shown here is promoted through Barclaycard. Its monochrome display is 4 x 16 characters in size, it has a vibrating ringer and has a phone book that can store up to 100 numbers.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 145.0 g
Dimensions = 133 x 54 x 15 mm
Battery life = 2.5 hours talk time, 70 hours standby

   
Panasonic_EB-G520

Panasonic EB-G520

The Panasonic EB-G520 mobile was released in 1998.

It featured a four position navigation key in which the up/down and left/right movements allowed you to scroll through menu items, options and system controls for screen brightness and speaker volume. The address book stored telephone numbers and associated names in the SIM card with speed dial access. Call timers recorded the duration of the last dialled call and a cumulative total. A vibrate ring tone option was also included and the G520 could both send and receive SMS text messages.


GSM 900 single band

Weight = 150g
Dimensions = 140 x 46 x 20 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 80 hours standby

   
Siemens_C11

Siemens C11

The Siemens Mobile Phone Division was established in 1985 with the launch of their C1 analogue mobile phone. In 2000 Siemens acquired the Bosch mobile phone division but in 2005 Siemens sold its mobile phone division to Taiwanese company BenQ which was permitted to continue using the Siemens brand name. The Siemens C11 was released in 1998. It had a monochrome alphanumeric display of 3 lines by 12 characters in resolution with fixed icons. The phone book could store 50 telephone numbers and associated names and call registers recorded the last 5 dialled and 4 received and missed calls.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM1800 single band

Weight = 165 g
Dimensions = 137 x 55 x 22 mm
Battery life = 5 hours talk time, 80 hours standby

   
Motorola_d460

Motorola d460

The Motorola d460 (mg1-4A11) was released in 1998 and was of similar size to the MicroTAC range but lacking the flip plate that covered the keypad. Otherwise it was a basic featured phone with a screen that could display 2 lines of text.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM 900 single band

Dimensions = 142 x 59 x 30 mm
Weight = 195g
Battery life = 3.3 hours talk time, 75 hours standby

   

Motorola_mr30

Motorola_Graphite

Motorola mr30

The Motorola mr30 (mp1-1B11) was introduced in 1998 as the third (mr1, mr20, mr30) in the range of Motorola mobiles designed specifically for use on the Orange network. It featured an alphanumeric LCD display that could display two lines of text with a range of fixed icons that included a permanently displayed signal strength and battery charge meter. The phone book could store 100 telephone numbers and associated names within the phone's memory and a further 90 in the SIM card. A one touch dialling feature allowed quick access to the numbers stored in the first 9 phone book entries. A range of call timers was also included together with an audible alert and a call log recorded the numbers of the last 10 calls made and received.

The upper image is of the Motorola mr30 as branded for the Orange network whereas the lower image is in fact the same mobile (Motorola code mp1-1B11) but branded as a Motorola Graphite and with a slightly modified keypad layout.

Graphite

GSM1800 single band


Weight = 195g
Dimensions = 142 x 58 x 33 mm
Battery life = 2.5 hours talk time, 40 hours standby

   
Siemens_S6_with_box

Siemens S6

The Siemens Mobile Phone Division was established in 1985 with the launch of their C1 analogue mobile phone. In 2000 Siemens acquired the Bosch mobile phone division but in 2005 Siemens sold its mobile phone division to Taiwanese company BenQ which was permitted to continue using the Siemens brand name. The Siemens S6 was introduced in 1998 and was marketed as being light and slim! It was however, a basic feature phone. The phone book stored telephone numbers and associated names within the SIM card with a fast dial capability accessed via the right hand menu soft key. A call register maintained details of the last 5 dialled and missed calls and timers recorded the duration of the last dialled called and the cumulative total. There was also the option of an audible reminder that would bleep every minute during a call. Finally, the Siemens S6 was able to both send and receive SMS text messages.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 165g
Dimensions = 159 x 55 x 22mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 60 hours standby

   

Nokia_5110

Nokia_Xpress_covers

Nokia 5110

Nokia introduced the 5100 series of handportable phones at the CeBIT 1998 exhibition in Hannover, Germany. The Nokia 5110 in that series (Nokia firmware code NSE-1NX) was released in 1998 and is not to be confused by the Nokia 5100 model that was released in 2002 (see GPRS mobiles section). With the 5100 series Nokia recognised that the mobile phone was becoming a fashion item that people wanted to personalise and so introduced the concept of Xpress-on interchangeable covers. The Nokia marketing campaign stated that now you could match your Nokia mobile phone with almost any clothing, style and occasion. Initially a simple colour range was available but the concept of changing your mobile cover soon grew to become a standard feature of mobiles and a major business with an enormous range of designs becoming available. Two examples of the Nokia 5110 are shown here with different coloured covers attached and below is an extract from the Nokia marketing leaflet that shows the seven colours, in addition to black, that were initially available. On the 23rd September 1998 Nokia announced the first limited edition covers for the winter holiday season. These were the Silver Bells Xpress-On and Snowflake Covers.

Targeted at the consumer market, the Nokia 5110 shared much in common with the business orientated Nokia 6110 but offered a simpler user interface using the Navi key and lacked the infra-red port. Its screen was a monochrome graphical one that could display 5 lines. Menu access was facilitated through Nokia's Navi key feature that was first introduced in the Nokia 3110 (see separate entry). The phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names within the SIM card memory which allowed for up to a maximum of 250 entries. Speed dialling was provided on nine entries using the keypad keys 1 to 9. Call logs recorded the duration of calls and the last five missed and received calls and the last eight dialled calls. It also included a calculator, clock with alarm and a selection of ring tones.

However, the Nokia 5110 has another important feature in common with the Nokia 6110 and that was the introduction of the mobile version of the popular computer game, Snake. This game went on to become an enormous success and many have claimed, kick started the whole mobile gaming industry. Nokia introduced two other games at the same time and these too were included on the Nokia 5110; these were Memory and Logic.

The Nokia 5110 also found fame as the mobile used by Agent Dana Scully in the X-files television series.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 170g
Dimensions = 132 x 47.5 x 31 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 60 hours standby

   
Nokia_5130

Nokia 5130

The Nokia 5130 (Nokia firmware code NSK-1NX) was released in 1998 and is a version of the Nokia 5110 for use on the Orange network where it was also known as the Nokia nk402. Apart from this one difference, it had the same specification as the Nokia 5110 (see separate entry).

The example shown here is fitted with an Xpress-on green cover.

GSM1800 single band

Weight = 170g
Dimensions = 132 x 47.5 x 31 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 60 hours standby

   
Nokia_5146

Nokia 5146

The Nokia 5146 (Nokia firmware code NSK-1NX) was a version of the Nokia 5110 released in 1998 for use on the Mercury one2one network. Apart from this one difference, it had the same specification as the Nokia 5110 (see separate entry).

The example shown here has a rather colourful tropical palm tree Xpress-on cover fitted.


GSM1800 single band

Weight = 170g
Dimensions = 132 x 47.5 x 31 mm
Battery = 3 hours talk time, 60 hours standby

   

Motorola_cd920

Motorola_mr602

Motorola cd920 / Motorola mr602

The Motorola cd920 was introduced in 1998 and was also known as the Motorola mr602 on the Orange network. It was a flip design with a more ergonomically curved body shape compared to its angular predecessors. The LCD screen was advertised as having a high contrast, easy to read, holographic appearance that could display 4 lines of 12 alphanumeric characters with separate icons for signal strength and battery charge. An innovative feature was the VoiceNote message recorder application which allowed you to record up to 3 minutes of speech. The address book could store up to 100 telephone numbers and associated names in the phone's memory with speed dial access. A choice of 11 ring tones was offered in addition to a vibrating ringer. In addition, the mobile provided a call log that maintained the last 10 dialled, received and missed calls, a clock and the ability to both send and receive SMS text messages.

The upper photograph shows the Motorola cd920 and the lower photograph is a Motorola mr602; the Orange logo being on the outside of the flip plate.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 145g
Dimensions = 130 x 55 x 27mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 100 hours standby

   
Alcatel_One_Touch_Easy

Alcatel One Touch Easy

The Alcatel One Touch Easy became available in 1998. Its monochrome screen could display 2 lines of text of 12 characters per line and was able to operate using AAA batteries.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 160g
Dimensions = 133 x 54 x 25mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 70 hours standby

   
Nokia_6150

Nokia 6150

The Nokia 6150 (Nokia firmware code NSM-1NY) was released in 1998. It had a monochrome screen could display 5 lines and the phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names within either the phone's internal memory or the SIM card. A total of 150 entries could be stored in the phone's memory with a further 250 entries in the SIM card. Different ring tones could be assigned to various groups of entries in the phone book and speed dialling was provided for nine entries using the keys 1 to 9. Call registers logged the most recent 10 missed, dialled and received calls and call timers recorded the duration of received and dialled calls together with cumulative totals. The Nokia 6150 also included SMS text messaging, a clock with alarm, a calculator and calendar function that allowed for the inclusion of text notes and reminders. In addition three games were pre-loaded and these were Snake, Memory and Logic.

Access to information services and downloaded ringtones was provided through Nokia's Smart Messaging service which was a precursor to the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). Nokia subsequently discontinued Smart Messaging in favour of the widespread adoption of WAP. External connectivity was also supported via an infra-red port which could be used for communication with other compatible mobiles and peripherals such as printers.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Dimensions = 129 x 47 x 28 mm
Weight = 141 g
Battery life = 1.6 hours talk time, 170 hours standby

   

Motorola_c520

Motorola_g520

Motorola_Colorado

Motorola 520

The Motorola 520 was released in 1998 as a basic featured phone. It was one of the first Motorola mobiles to use the smaller size SIM card which resulted in it being reasonably slim with a curved body shape which made it comfortable to hold. By choosing a slightly thicker back cover, the mobile could be converted to use 4 AA batteries. The screen could display 2 lines of 12 characters with additional fixed icons for signal strength and battery charge levels. An address book could store up to 90 telephone numbers with associated names within the phone's memory with speed dial access.

A range of call timers recorded the combined duration of all calls, the duration of the most recent call and a programmable audible call alert timer which operated during a call. The call log recorded the last 10 telephone numbers dialled and also received. There was a choice of 11 ring tones and the mobile could both send and receive SMS text messages.

The three examples shown here are in the top photograph a Motorola c520 (mp2-1A14) locked to the Orange network, in the second photograph a Motorola g520 Aerial (mp2-1A12), and in the bottom photograph a version branded as the Motorola Colorado (mp2-1A17).

GSM1800 singe band
(Motorola c520)

GSM900 single band
(Motorola g520)

Weight = 170g
Dimensions = 140 x 50 x 28 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 60 hours standby

   
Motorola_Manhattan

Motorola Manhattan

The Motorola Manhattan (mp1-1d11) appears to have also been released as the Memphis and on the Orange network, as the mr201. This candy bar style mobile dates from 1998 and provided the standard set of phone functions and support for sending and receiving SMS text messages. It had a small LCD display and keypad function buttons dedicated to the address book, menu, and SMS messaging. The 4.8v rechargeable battery can be replaced by four AA cells as an alternative.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 235g
Dimensions = 159 x 58 x 30mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 75 hours standby

   
Motorola_v3688

Motorola v3688

The Motorola v3688 clamshell phone (Motorola model code MC2-41E11) was released in 1998. At the time it as marketed by Motorola as one of the smallest dual-band mobiles in the world. The monochrome screen had a resolution of 96 x 64 pixels organised as a 5 line display with fixed icons. In addition to the standard set of phone functions and SMS messaging, it provided a clock function, a phone book that could store 100 telephone numbers with associated names and a call log which recorded the last 10 dialled, missed and received calls.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM 900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 83 g
Dimensions = 83 x 44 x 25 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 140 hours standby

   

Ericsson_A1018s_with_a_selection_of_covers

Ericsson_A1018s_Coca_Cola_special_edition

 

Ericsson A1018s

The Ericsson A1018s was introduced in 1998 and is a candy bar style mobile. In addition to the normal phone functions, the A1018 provided a personal phone book that was stored on the SIM card memory. This phone book could store telephone numbers with associated names with full edit and search function capability. A call list maintained a record of the 30 most recent incoming and outgoing calls and timers measured the duration of calls. There was a choice of ring tone melodies preloaded in the phone or you could compose your own melody with an EditMelody menu option in which the mobile's keys became a musical keyboard. In addition it featured a clock with alarm function, the ability to send and receive SMS text messages and keypad lock and PIN code access security. Finally, you could personalise the appearance of the phone by changing part of the front cover as shown here. The A1018 in the lower photograph has a special edition Coca Cola branded cover.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 150g
Dimensions = 130 x 49 x 19 mm
Battery life = 5 hours talk time, 100 hours standby

   

Nokia_3210

Nokia_3210_with_black_and_white_cow_hide_cover

 

Nokia 3210

The Nokia 3210 (Nokia firmware code NSE-8) was introduced in 1999 and was the first mobile from Nokia to have a fully internal antenna. It had a monochrome graphic screen that displayed 5 lines. The phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names on the phone's SIM card which allowed for a maximum of 250 entries to be created. A specific ring tone could also be assigned to phone book entries and speed dialling was provided for nine entries using the 1-9 keys. Menu access was facilitated through Nokia's Navi key feature that was first introduced in the Nokia 3110 (see separate entry). In addition to a range of pre-loaded ring tones, you could also create your own using the composer function.

The Nokia 3210 provided full SMS text messaging, including the use of T9 predictive text and the ability to handle basic graphic picture messaging. The call logs recorded the most recent eight missed, received and dialled calls and call timers recorded the duration of calls as well as cumulative totals. Other functions included a calculator, a clock with alarm and a date calendar. Three games were also included (Snake, Memory and Rotation). Personalisation of the phone included being able to alter the external appearance of the mobile using Nokia's Xpress-on changeable covers (the lower image for example shows a black and white cow cover).

The Nokia 3210 was one of the most popular and successful mobiles ever produced with over 160 million being sold. This success was attributed to a marketing campaigning especially targeted at the young. It was superseded by the Nokia 3310.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 151 g
Dimensions = 124 x 50 x 17 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 260 hours standby

   
Motorola_m3888

Motorola m3888

The Motorola m3888 (mC2-41D54) was introduced in 1999. It had a monochrome display of 2 x 12 characters with fixed icons. An address book was supported but storage was restricted to the SIM card only. Call history was provided in terms of recording details of the last 10 dialled, 5 received and 5 missed calls.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 170g
Dimensions = 140 x 50 x 25 mm
Battery life = 3.8 hours talk time, 110 hours standby

   
Nokia_7110

Nokia 7110

The Nokia 7110 (Nokia firmware codeNSE-5) was announced on 23rd February 1999 at the GSM World Congress in Cannes, France. In a press release issued by Nokia they claimed that the 7110 was the world's first media phone based on the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), bringing Internet content and other services to every pocket! Version 1.0 of the WAP specification had been announced the previous year and Nokia was a co-founding member of the WAP Forum. It was also the first Nokia phone to enable Chinese input from the phone keypad.

The Nokia 7110 followed on from the Nokia 8110 (see separate entry) which had famously been used in the Matrix feature film. However, the version of the Nokia 8110 used in that film had been modified to include a spring loaded slider; a design feature that was now incorporated into the Nokia 7110. At the top, on the rear of the phone, is a small silver button which when pressed releases the slider thereby revealing the keypad and also answering a call. Another innovative design feature was the NaviRoller which is a thumbwheel that can be seen just below the screen, in the middle of the phone. This provided easy access to menus allowing you to scroll through items by rotation the roller and then selecting the one you wanted by pressing the roller.

The monochrome graphic display of the Nokia 7110 had a resolution of 96 x 65 pixels and was almost 80 percent larger than that of the Nokia 6110 (see separate entry) even though the Nokia 7110 was, overall, a smaller phone. The phone book could store 1000 entries, comprising names and up to three associated telephone numbers with the option for additional text notes, in the phone's memory with a further 250 entries stored in the SIM card. Speed dialling could be configured for eight of these entries using keypad keys 2 to 9. Full support is given for SMS text messaging, including T9 predictive text, a friendly text entry interface in which the NaviRoller was used to select characters and the ability to organise received messages into user defined folders. Call registers monitored the last 10 dialled, received and missed calls and call timers recorded the duration of the most recent call together with a cumulative total. In addition, the Nokia 7110 included a clock with alarm, a calculator and a calendar that allowed for a day, week or month view and which included the provision for adding text notes for key meetings, events and reminders. An infrared port provided external connectivity with other compatible phones or for connecting to a PC for the purposes of synchronising the calendar for example. There was a choice of 35 pre-loaded monophonic ring ones and a vibrating ringer option. Four games were also included and these were Snake II, Rotation, Racket and Opposite. Finally, Internet access allowed WAP compatible web sites and information services to be accessed via a WAP 1.0 micro-browser running over either a GSM circuit switched data (CSD) connection or SMS bearer service.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 141g
Dimensions = 125 x 53 x24 mm
Battery life = 4.5 hours talk time, 260 hours standby

   
Philips_TCD128_Savvy

Philips TCD128 Savvy

The Philips Savvy (TCD128) was released in 1999 when it was marketed as being light and small so it can easily be taken from home out to play. Philips also claimed that it had been designed for fun with different colour combinations available which comprised an all black cover as shown here with this BT Cellnet branded version, a yellow cover with black insert and a green cover with dark green insert. The upper part of the keypad was dominated by a large compass key that was used t ease navigation of menus and selecting options. It had a monochrome screen that could display 2 lines of 15 characters with an additional line of fixed icons and a small graphic area in which could be displayed items such as an animated clock. The phone book could store telephone numbers with associated names in the SIM card with speed dialling available on eight entries using the keypad keys 2 to 9. A call registered monitored the last 20 dialled, missed or received calls and timers recorded the duration of the most recent call together with a cumulative total. Further levels of personalisation could be achieved by choosing one from a selection of 20 pre-loaded ringtones and by using Philips' emotion icons when sending and receiving SMS text messages. In addition the Savvy included a clock with alarm, calculator, biorhythm calendar and stop watch.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 140g
Dimensions = 129 x 48 x 24 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 130 hours standby

   
Panasonic_EB-G3350S

Panasonic EB-G350S

The Panasonic G350S was introduced in 1999.

The monochrome screen could display 12 x 2 characters and a row of fixed icons. The phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names in the SIM card. A call register logged up to the last 10 dialled calls and timers recorded the duration of the last call and a cumulative total. It also supported both the sending and receiving of SMS text messages.


GSM900 single band

Weight = 220 g
Dimensions = 142 x 46 x 24 mm
Battery life = 1.3 hours talk time, 18 hours standby

   
Alcatel_One_Touch_Club_db_with_box

Alcatel One Touch Club db

The Alcatel One Touch Club mobile was introduced in 1999 and this particular phone operated on the Vodafone GSM network. It had a monochrome screen that could display three lines of text and could operate using AAA batteries.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 150 g
Dimensions = 122 x 48 x 26 mm
Battery life = 4 hours, 45 minutes talk time, 130 hours standby

   
Motorola_m3588

Motorola M3588

The Motorola M3588 (MC2-41D53) was launched in 1999 as a basic featured phone. The example shown here was issued for us on the NT Cellnet network. It had a monochrome graphical display of 96 x 32 pixels with fixed icons, stored the address book in the SIM card memory only and included a range of monophonic ringtones. A call log recorded the last 10 calls dialled and the last 5 missed and received calls.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 170 g
Dimensions = 140 x 50 x 26 mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 110 hours standby

   
Philips_Savvy_db

Philips Savvy dB

The Philips Savvy dB (TCD 168) was introduced in 1998. It has a monochrome screen that can display 2 lines of text with fixed icons. Its keypad has a prominent Compass Key for navigating the mobile's menus. Moving the compass key left/right or up/down allowed you to move through the menu items and make select options. The phone book, or Name List as it was known, could store telephone numbers and associated names within the SIM card with the ability to allocate eight entries for flash dialling using keys 2 to 9. The call register logged that last 10 dialled numbers and the last 10 received calls, including both answered and missed calls. Also call timers recorded the duration of the most recent call together with a cumulative total. The Philips Savvy could both send and receive SMS text messages, including several predefined common messages and the support for small graphical symbols called emotion icons that could be included within your messages. In addition, the mobile included a 24 hour clock with alarm, a calculator, stop watch and biorhythm calculator.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 140 g
Dimensions = 129 x 48 x 24 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 120 hours standby

   
Ericsson_T28s

Ericsson T28s

The Ericsson T28s was introduced in 1999 as an ultra small flip phone in which the flip plate was activated by a push button on the right hand side of the phone. It included a personal phone book that could store up to 99 telephone numbers and associated names in memory with additional storage using the SIM card. Access to the address book was gained via the menus, speed dialling for entries 1 to 9 and voice dialling. You could personalise the phone by selecting a range of pre-loaded ring tones or by composing your own using the keyboard keys via the My-melody menu. The T28s also offered a vibrating ringer, a range of call timers and could send and receive SMS text messages. Finally, it provided a time and date function, alarm clock, stop watch, timer, a basic function calculator and two games, Tetris and Solitaire.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 83g
Dimensions = 95 x 49 x 15 mm
Battery life = 3.5 hours talk time, 50 hours standby

   
Bosch_509e

Bosch 509e

The Bosch 509e was launched in 1999 and rather fittingly, this striking bright orange mobile phone was sold to work on the Orange network. It was however, released in several other colours including green, yellow, purple and black. The monochrome display has a resolution of 4 x 16 characters and the phone book could store telephone numbers with associated names. A call register logged the last 10 received, dialled and missed calls and call timers recorded the duration of your most recent call together with a cumulative total. You could also choose from a selection of 27 pre-loaded ring tones. In addition to the normal phone functions, the Bosch 509e provided full support for SMS text messaging and also included a calculator.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 150 g
Dimensions = 134 x 53 x 23 mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 87 hours standby

   
Motorola_m3688e

Motorola m3688e

The Motorola m3688e (mC2-41D31) was released in 1999. This was a flip phone design in which a moveable plate could be opened to answer a call or closed to cover the main part of the keypad but leaving accessible the navigation keys. It had a four line display with fixed icons and provided the standard set of basic phone functions and support for SMS messaging. The phone book could store up to 90 telephone numbers and associated names but in the SIM card memory, not the phone. A choice of 11 pre-programmed ring tones was available together with a range of call timers with audible alerts and a call log which recorded the numbers of the last 10 calls made and received.

The Motorola m3688e shown here was available on the Orange network.

GSM 900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 170 g
Dimensions = 140 x 50 x 25 mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 110 hours standby

   

Motorola_m3788

Motorola_m3788e

Motorola 3788

The Motorola m3788 was released in 1999 and externally appears to identical to the earlier Motorola 520. The main differences were an improved screen resolution, battery life and the fact that it was dual band. It was a budget phone costing between £30 and £60. As per the Motorola 520 it was reasonably slim and had a curved body shape which made it comfortable to hold. By choosing a slightly thicker back cover, the mobile could be converted to use 4 AA batteries. The screen resolution was 96 x 32 pixels and could display 4 lines of text with additional fixed icons for signal strength and battery charge levels. An address book could store up to 90 telephone numbers with associated names within the phone's memory with speed dial access.

A range of call timers recorded the combined duration of all calls, the duration of the most recent call and a programmable audible call alert timer which operated during a call. The call log recorded the last 10 telephone numbers dialled and also received. There was a choice of 11 ring tones and the mobile could both send and receive SMS text messages.

The two examples shown here are in the top photograph, a Motorola m3788 and in the bottom photograph, a Motorola m3788e (mc2-41D32) locked to the Orange network.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 170g
Dimensions = 140 x 50 x 28 mm
Battery life = 3.8 hours talk time, 110 hours standby

   
Motorola_am3180

Motorola am3180

The Motorola am3180 (mg2-4B210 was released in 1999 and provided the standard set of phone functions and support for SMS messaging.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 single band

Weight = 169g
Dimensions = 160 x 50 x29mm
Battery life = unknown

   
Motorola_v100e

Motorola V100e

The Motorola V100e was released in 2000 and is a clamshell design with, rather unusually, a full QWERTY keyboard to aid the composing and sending of SMS text messages. It also had a large screen with a 126 x 64 pixels resolution and capable of displaying 7 lines of text with additional fixed icons. The address book could store 100 telephone numbers with associated names within the phone's memory with an additional 90 entries stored on the SIM card. There was a dedicated instant access phone book key located on the front edge of the phone with speed dialling available for the first 9 entries and also voice dialling access for up to 25 of the phone book entries. The clock had full time and date functionality and also offered an alarm feature. Various call meters were provided with optional audible alerts, you could record short voice memos using the in-built VoiceNotes function and you could personalise the phone by selecting one of 11 available ring tones or compose your own. Three games were included and these were Towers of Hanoi, Baccarat and Bricks. Finally, basic internet access was provided via the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) which gave access to wml formatted websites.

GSM 900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 83g
Dimensions = 83 x 44 x 25 mm
Battery life = 3.5 hours talk time, 120 hours standby

   
Ericsson_A2618s

Ericsson A2618s

The Ericsson A2618s was introduced in 2000 as a replacement for the very popular A1018s. It included several enhanced features. The address book could store up to 100 telephone numbers and associated names in the phone's memory with voice activated dialling and short cut keypad dialling for the first 9 entries. The call lists recorded the last 20 dialled, answered or missed calls. The A2618s included time and date functions, an alarm clock, a stop watch, call timers and basic function calculator. It could also send and receive SMS text messages and allowed levels of personalisation by selecting from a range of pre-loaded ring tone melodies, by composing your own ring tone and by changing the external covers. Three games were also provided on the phone, Tetris, Erix and E-Maze. Finally, limited Internet access was provided to mobile services using the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) over an SMS bearer.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 140g
Dimensions = 131 x 51 x25mm
Battery life = 9 hours talk time, 200 hours standby

   
Sagem_MC920

Sagem MC920

Sagem is a French company that was formed in 1925. The Sagem MC920 mobile phone was introduced in 2000. It had a built in hands-free speaker phone, Easy Text for rapid text entry, a vibrating ringer, had inter-changeable covers, included a clock with an alarm and included a task scheduler.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 117g
Dimensions = 117 x 46 x 19 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 130 hours standby

   

Nokia_3310

Nokia_3310_with_Guinness_covers

Nokia 3310

The Nokia 3310 (Nokia firmware code NHM-5NX) was introduced in 2000 as a replacement for the hugely successful Nokia 3210. It had a monochrome graphical screen that could display 5 lines and incorporated a screen saver. As per the Nokia 3210, the Nokia 3310 phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names on the phone's SIM card which allowed for a maximum of 250 entries to be created. A specific ring tone could also be assigned to phone book entries, speed dialling was provided for nine entries using the 1-9 keys and additionally, voice dialling was supported with up to eight entries being able to be activated through a voice tag.

Menu access was facilitated through Nokia's Navi key feature that was first introduced in the Nokia 3110 (see separate entry). In addition to a range of pre-loaded ring tones, you could also create your own using the composer function and there was a vibrate option too. The Nokia 3310 provided full SMS text messaging, including the use of T9 predictive text and the ability to handle basic graphic picture messaging. In addition, a range of message templates was included to facilitate rapid creation of common message types and support for smiley icon was also included.

The call logs were extended slightly to record the most recent ten missed and received calls and the last twenty dialled calls. A set of call timers recorded the duration of calls as well as cumulative totals.

Other features included an extended range of functions encompassing a calculator, a clock with alarm, a date calendar, a stopwatch, countdown timer and reminders which comprise short text messages that could be displayed at pre-defined times. Four games were also included (Snake II, Space Impact, Bantumi and Pairs II). Personalisation of the phone included being able to alter the external appearance of the mobile using Nokia's Xpress-on changeable covers (the lower image for example shows a special edition Guinness cover).

The Nokia 3310 was also an incredibly successful mobile selling was 126 million being sold. It was superseded by the Nokia 3410.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 133g
Dimensions = 113 x 48 x 22mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 245 hours standby

   

Mitsubishi_Trium_Aria_(closed)

Mitsubishi_Trium_Aria_(open)

Mitsubishi Trium Aria

The Mitsubishi Trium Aria flip phone was released in 2000. The display could show four lines of text and one row of icons. It had predictive text, 12 melodies, 8 ring tones, a vibrating ringer and was data/fax compatible with separate tones for data/fax. The Aria had a diary application, calculator, currency converter and two in built games, Brain Drain and Push.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight 90 g
Dimensions 123 x 40 x 23 mm
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 75 hours standby

   

Ericsson_R380_SmartPhone_with_box

Ericsson_R380_SmartPhone_(open)

Ericsson R380 smart phone World

The Ericsson R380 was launched in 2000 as a business tool and became the first GSM phone to use the EPOC32 operating system (Release 5). Originally developed for the Psion Series 5 of PDAs, EPOC became the Symbian Operating System. The use of EPOC gave the R380 features which identified it as a Smartphone combining a mobile phone, personal organiser, WAP browser, email and SMS messaging and secure access.

The R380 has adopted a flip design which is allows it to easily accommodate the two basic modes of operation namely, a conventional phone and a Smartphone. Fully opening the phone reveals a 120 x 360 pixel (28 x 83mm) touch screen to support the Smartphone functions which are viewed with the phone orientated in landscape mode. When closed, two thirds of the screen is obscured by the phone's keypad giving it a more conventional look and feel. These two distinct functions were provided by two separate processors, a GSM processor and an ARM processor and the phone had 1.2MB of memory.

When using the Smartphone functions, text entry could be achieved using either a QWERTY keyboard displayed on the touch sensitive screen or by a handwriting recognition application. The contacts application stored names, numbers, postal and email addresses. The R380 could connect to other mobiles using an Infrared port or to computers via a serial port. Software was provided to allow the R380 to be synchronised with your PC. Internet access was provided by the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) operating over a GSM data service. In addition, the R380 provided a calendar function with to do lists and appointments, a notepad application, a 10 digit calculator, a clock and one strategy game.

However, despite the capability of this Smartphone, users were unable to install their own software or applications.

GSM900 / GSM1900 dual band

Weight = 164 g
Dimensions = 130 x 50 x 26 mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 150 hours standby

   
Motorola_L7089_Timeport

Motorola L7089 Timeport

The Motorola L7089 (MT2-411A11) was introduced in 2000, offering the advantage of being able to work in Europe and the USA by virtue of it being a tri-band mobile. Its monochrome screen could display 5 lines of alphanumeric characters with fixed icons. An address book could store up to 100 telephone numbers and associated names within the phone's memory. Access to the address book was provided by one touch dialling for the first nine entries, voice access and by using a Smart Button which was located on the left hand side of the phone. A Voice Notes feature allowed you to record up to 3 minutes of speech using the start / stop button located on the right hand side of the phone. The Motorola L7089 also included an infra-red communications port, a clock, vibrating ringer, call logs that recorded the last 10 dialled and received calls, a range of call meters and the ability to send and receive SMS text messages. This particular example carries the Virgin Mobile branding.

GSM900 / GSM1800 / GSM1900 tri-band

Weight = 140g
Dimensions = 130 x 46 x 23mm
Battery life = 3.5 hours talk time, 150 hours standby

   
Nokia_6210

Nokia 6210

The Nokia 6210 (Nokia firmware code NPE-3NX) was launched in 2000 and was aimed at the business market. It had a 96 x 60 pixels monochrome graphical display and was the first Nokia mobile to provide higher speed data services for Internet access through the provision of a High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) connection.

The phone book stored telephone numbers and associated names using either the phone's internal memory or the SIM card. When using the internal memory, a total of 500 entries could be stored with each containing up to 3 telephone numbers against each name. A free form text field could be added to these numbers or you could select one of the pre-installed fields such as home, mobile, or office. This feature was not available when storing the phone book on the SIM card. A specific ring tone could be assigned to a phone book entry and voice dialling was available for ten entries and speed dialling could be assigned to eight entries using the keypad keys 2 to 9.

Support for text messaging included T9 predictive text, templates for common message types and also for picture messages. A call register recorded the last ten dialled, missed and received calls and timers recorded the duration of each call and the cumulative total. Additional applications included a clock with alarm, calculator and a calendar that allowed information to be added to each day in the form of short text notes to show meetings etc. Three games were also included and these were Snake II, Pairs II and Opposite.

An infra-red port provided external connectivity to other compatible mobiles for exchanging phone book entries and extending games to 2 player mode, peripherals such as printers and a computer. Software provided by Nokia allowed the phone to function as an Internet modem for the computer.

Internet access was provided via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.1 browser operating over a High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) connection. This allowed for higher data rates to be transmitted compared to the use of circuit switched data (CSD) connection. An improvement was made possible by modifying the communications protocols used, specifically in providing a more efficient error detection algorithm that consumed less network bandwidth, hence allowing that to be used to data transfer and also by being able to use up to four time slots within the GSM network, compared to only one when using CSD. These combined allowed for a maximum possible data rate of 38.4 kbps on GSM 900 networks and 57.6 bps on GSM 1800 networks. However, these faster data rates did come at the expense of increased battery consumption and higher charges. Whilst these speeds appear slow compared to those that can be achieved using today's 3G networks, it must be remembered that in 2000 when the Nokia 6210 was launched, most people gained access to the Internet from home using dial-up modems that worked at comparable speeds.

The Nokia 6210e version shown here was the variant released for use on the Orange network. The badge at the lower edge of the keypad that contains the Orange logo was in fact removable and could be replaced with a customised badge.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 114g
Dimensions = 129 x 47 x 19 mm
Battery life = 4.5 hours talk time, 260 hours standby

   
Nokia_8890

Nokia 8890

In 1995 Nokia established a design unit under the leadership of Frank Nuovo to influence the style of future mobile designs. In 1999 they released the Nokia 8850 which quickly established itself as a design classic and a much sought after mobile. The Nokia 8890 (Nokia firmware code NSB-6NY) shown here was released in 2000 as a derivative of the Nokia 8850. It shared most of the design features and external appearance of the 8850 but offered some enhancements.

Most significantly whilst the Nokia 8890 is also a dual band phone, it covers the GSM900 / GSM1900 bands (whereas the Nokia 8850 covered the GSM900 / GSM 1800 bands) and it also included a retractable external aerial for use in poor reception areas within the GSM1900 network. There were also minor differences in the menu structure.

The sliding cover protected the keypad and was used to answer and terminate calls or to exit from menu items. With the slide closed, you could still however, access menu items and make calls from the phone book. It had a monochrome graphic 5 line display and an address book that could store telephone numbers and associated names in either the phone's internal memory or the SIM card; both could store up to 250 entries. Speed dial access was provided on eight entries using the keys 2 -9, voice dialling could also be configured for eight entries and a separate ring tone could be assigned to the entries. Support was provided for SMS text messaging, including predictive text, and basic block graphic picture messages could also be sent and received. Call registers recorded the most recent 10 dialled, missed and received calls and timers recorded the duration of each call and the cumulative total. Additional functions included a clock with alarm, calculator and a calendar application in which you could insert text notes for each day. Four games were included and these were Snake, Memory, Logic and Rotation.

Access to information services and downloaded ringtones was provided via Nokia's Smart Messaging. This technology was a precursor to the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and was subsequently discontinued by Nokia in favour of the widespread adoption of WAP.

An infra-red port allowed for external connectivity to other compatible mobiles for exchanging information and extending the games to 2 player mode. The port also permitted connection to a PC or peripheral such as a printer.

GSM900 / GSM1900 dual band

Dimensions = 100 x 44 x 18 mm
Weight = 91 g
Battery life = 2 hours talk time, 50 hours standby

   
Motorola_Talkabout_180e

Motorola Talkabout 180e

The Motorola Talkabout 180e (mC2-41H21) was introduced in 2000 for use on the Orange network. It was a basic function, no frills, robust mobile that provided an inexpensive entry into the market. The LCD screen could display 2 x 12 alphanumeric characters with fixed icons.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 140g
Dimensions = 130 x 47 x 27mm
Battery life = 3.5 hours talk time, 135 hours standby

   
Sony_J5e

Sony J5e

The Sony Corporation began life in 1945 in Japan as Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, a company specialising in the manufacture of radios. It was in 1958 that the company changed its name to Sony and they entered the mobile phone business in the early 1990s with analogue models such as the CM-H333 and CM-R111 (see analogue mobiles section). However, Sony only held a minor percentage of the global phone market and on 1st October 2001 merged Sweden's Ericsson to form Sony-Ericsson.

The Sony J5e was released in 2000. It has a 6 line greyscale graphic display of 96 x 92 pixels resolution with optional wallpaper graphics. An innovative feature was the Jog Dial which was a thumbwheel on the left hand side of the phone that could be rotated or pushed in to access the menus and key phone functions including the phonebook, text message editor, call lists etc. The phone book could store up to 500 telephone numbers and associated names within the phone's memory with further storage available in the SIM card. Specific ring tones could be assigned to groups of numbers within the phone book, there was a vibrate option and a recorder application allowed you to record your own ring tone using the phone's microphone. Support for SMS text messaging included T9 predictive text and preloaded templates to ease the creation of commonly used message types. Call registers recorded the last 10 dialled, received and missed calls and call timers measured the duration of the most recent call and a cumulative total.

In addition, the mobile included a clock with alarm, a calendar with a to do list capability, a timer and calculator. Four games were included and these were Bananas, Sand Art, Mind Blaster and PicPuz. Internet access was provided via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) browser which operated over either a GSM circuit switched data (CSD) connection or SMS bearer service and allowed WAP compatible websites to be viewed.

The Sony J5e shown here was specifically produced for use on the Orange network.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 85 g
Dimensions = 123 x 45 x 20 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 120 hours standby

   
Samsung_SGH-A300

Samsung SGH-A300

Samsung Electronics is a South Korean Company that was formed in 1969. The Samsung SGH-A300 was launched in 2001 and is a clamshell phone that was made available in three colours; Champaign Gold, Metallic Silver (shown) and Rich Black. The main monochrome display that is revealed when the phone is open has a 128 x 128 pixel resolution with a greyscale of 4 shades and with dynamic font size. The external display which is used when the phone is closed is smaller and has an 80 x 48 pixel resolution. When the active flip function is enabled, calls could be answered and terminated simply by opening and closing the phone. The phone book could store up to 99 telephone numbers and names in the phone's memory with additional storage in the SIM card. Single press speed dialling could be configured using keypad keys 2 to 9 and specific ring tones and graphic symbols could be assigned to groups of numbers which would be played and displayed when receiving a call from the number. Call registers recorded the last 10 dialled, missed and received calls and call timers recorded the duration of the last call together with the cumulative total of received and dialled calls.

Text messaging support included T9 predictive text and the ability to configure up to 5 commonly used preset messages. In addition, it included a clock with alarm, a calculator, a calendar with a to do list function, a voice memo application and an infra-red port for external connectivity. It also included 50 pre-loaded ringtones and a composer application which allowed you to create your own melodies. Basic Internet services were supported via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.1 browser that gave access to WAP compatible websites and services.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 83g
Dimensions = 81 x 42 x 22 mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 80 hours standby

   
Motorola_Timeport_250

Motorola Timeport 250

The Motorola Timeport 250 (MT2-411A31) was introduced in 2001as a feature rich business mobile with a tri-band capability allowing roaming in all five continents.

The screen had a resolution of 98 x 64 pixels being able to display 5 lines of SMS text and with a distinctive blue backlight. There were also dedicated icons for signal strength, roaming, text message pending and battery charge level. The keypad included keys dedicated for direct access to voicemail, a VoiceNotes function, and a Smart button for navigating and accessing menus. The VoiceNotes function turned the phone into a voice memo recorder. An address book could store up to 100 telephone numbers with associated names within the phone's memory which could be accessed using voice activated dialling. Also included were a range of call timers, reminders and meters, a clock, date book and alarm function, a call log which recorded the last 10 calls made, received and missed and a choice of 11 ring tones which included a vibrating option and a composer application to create your own monophonic tones.

An Infra-red port and data port allowed access to a personal computer for data and fax applications and also for data synchronisation using Motorola's TrueSync software. Finally, the Timeport 250 included a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) mini-browser that gave basic Internet access to wml formatted websites.

GSM900 / GSM1800 / GSM1900 tri-band

Weight = 97 g
Dimensions = 130 x 46 x 23 mm
Battery life = 3.5 hours talk time, 110 hours standby

   
Sony_J70e

Sony J70e

The Sony Corporation began life in 1945 in Japan as Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, a company specialising in the manufacture of radios. It was in 1958 that the company changed its name to Sony and they entered the mobile phone business in the early 1990s with analogue models such as the CM-H333 and CM-R111 (see analogue mobiles section). However, Sony only held a minor percentage of the global phone market and on 1st October 2001 merged Sweden's Ericsson to form Sony-Ericsson.

The Sony J70e was released in 2001 as an upgrade to the earlier Sony J5e (see separate entry) and although it carries the Sony name, the manual carried the new Sony Ericsson branding. The most noticeable feature of the J70e that differentiated it from the J5e was the fact that it had an internal aerial. Battery life had also been extended but it maintained the Jog Dial which was a thumbwheel on the left hand side of the phone that could be rotated or pushed in to access the menus and key phone functions including the phonebook, text message editor, call lists etc.

It has a 6 line, 4 greyscale graphic display of 96 x 92 pixels resolution with optional wallpaper graphics. As with the J5e, the phone book could store up to 500 telephone numbers and associated names within the phone's memory with further storage available in the SIM card. Specific ring tones could be assigned to groups of numbers within the phone book, there was a vibrate option and a recorder application allowed you to record your own ring tone using the phone's microphone. Support for SMS text messaging included T9 predictive text and preloaded templates to ease the creation of commonly used message types. Call registers recorded the last 10 dialled, received and missed calls and call timers measured the duration of the most recent call and a cumulative total.

In addition, as per the J5e, the J70e included a clock with alarm, a calendar with a to do list capability, a timer and calculator. Four games were included and these were Bananas, Sand Art, Mind Blaster and PicPuz. Internet access was provided via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) browser which operated over either a GSM circuit switched data (CSD) connection or SMS bearer service and allowed WAP compatible websites to be viewed.

The Sony J70e shown here was specifically produced for use on the Orange network.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 92 g
Dimensions = 113 x 44 x 21 mm
Battery life = 6 hours talk time, 200 hours standby

   
Nokia_5510

Nokia 5510

The Nokia 5510 (Nokia firmware code NPM-5) was released in 2001 and was their first dedicated digital music device advertised with the slogan, looks weird, sounds great. It boasted a 64MB internal storage capacity that could hold up to 2 hours of almost CD quality audio and had an 84 x 48 pixel monochrome screen with screensaver that was surrounded by a QWERTY keypad. Quick access buttons for the music player and radio were also placed on the side of the mobile which, overall, had a horizontal, landscape form factor.

The Nokia 5510 was a follow on device from the Nokia 3310 (see separate entry) and was superseded by the Nokia 3300 (see GPRS mobiles section). Its phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names in either the phone's memory or SIM card. Up to 100 entries could be stored within the phone with a maximum of 250 entries in the SIM card. Speed dialling was provided for up to eight entries being assigned to keys 2 to 9. Voice dialling was also supported for up to 8 entries. The Nokia 5510 provided a full range of SMS text messaging functions including basic picture messaging, templates for common message types and smileys. A call register recorded the most recent 10 missed and received calls and the last 20 dialled calls together with the duration of calls and their cumulative total.

Internet access was provided via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.1 browser operating over either a circuit switched data (CSD) connection or by using the unstructured supplementary service data (USSD) service. With CSD a dedicated connection has to be established to a WAP gateway service provider whereas USSD uses a form of text messaging to communicate. This gave access to WAP compatible web sites and services such as those provided via Club Nokia.

Other features included a calculator, stop watch, countdown timer, a clock with alarm, and reminder messages. Five games were also included and these were Snake II, Space Impact, Bumper, Bantumi, Pairs II.

However, the main feature of the Nokia 5510 was its audio capability being able to store and play music in both MP3 and AAC formats with a built in equalizer. Music could be downloaded to the PC from a PC using its USB connection and Nokia's Audio Manager PC software package. It was also possible to record music from external audio devices or the built in FM radio. The FM radio used the audio headset cord as it's aerial.

Despite the fact that the Nokia 5500 was marketed as an entertainment model and targeted at the young generation, its price tag and large size compared to competitor's models meant that it did not prove popular with consumers.

GSM 900 / GSM 1800 dual band

Weight = 155g
Dimensions = 134 x 58 x 28 mm
Battery life = 2.5 hours talk time, 55 hours standby

   
Nokia_3410

Nokia 3410

The Nokia 3410 (Nokia firmware code NHM-2NX) was released in 2002 as a replacement for the Nokia 3310.

It had a higher resolution monochrome graphical screen that could display 96 x 65 pixels and with animated 3D screensavers. The phone book could store telephone numbers and associated names on both the phone's SIM card and internal memory. A specific ring tone could also be assigned to phone book entries, speed dialling was provided for nine entries using the 1-9 keys and voice dialling was supported for up to eight entries.

In addition to a range of pre-loaded ring tones, you could also create your own using the composer function and there was a vibrate option too. The Nokia 3410 provided full SMS text messaging, including the use of T9 predictive text, picture messaging using basic graphical images, a range of message templates for commonly used message types and support for smiley icons. A picture editor allowed you to create your own graphical images or edit those preloaded on to the phone.

The call logs recorded the most recent ten missed and received calls and the last twenty dialled calls. A set of call timers recorded the duration of calls as well as cumulative totals. Other features included an extended range of functions encompassing a calculator, a clock with alarm, a stopwatch, countdown timer and reminders which comprise short text messages that could be displayed at pre-defined times. Five games were also included (Snake II, Space Impact, Bumper, Bantumi and Link 5). These could be linked to the ringtone generator to add sounds including a vibrate option used when playing Snake. It was also possible to logon to Club Nokia in order to upload your high scores. Personalisation of the phone included being able to alter the external appearance of the mobile using Nokia's Xpress-on changeable covers.

However, the most important feature of the Nokia 3410 was that it was Nokia's first Java enabled mobile and offered Internet access using a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.1 browser. Internet access was provided over a circuit switched data (CSD) service which is a dial-up connection that is made to a WAP gateway service offered by network providers. This allowed the Nokia 3410 to be used for browsing WAP compatible websites, downloading Java games, ringtones and pictures and accessing special services such as Club Nokia.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 114g
Dimensions = 115 x 49 x 22.5 mm
Battery life = 2.3 hours talk time, 55 hours standby

   
Nokia_5210

Nokia 5210

The Nokia 5210 (Nokia firmware code NSM-5) was released in 2002 and quickly acquired the nickname of The Builder's Phone because of its ruggedized design and rubber splash/impact proof cover. Many of the phone's features were clearly targeted to users who pursued an outdoor active lifestyle. It had a monochrome graphical screen that could display 5 lines and had an orange backlight.

The address book stored telephone numbers and associated names in both the phone's internal memory and SIM card. Each could store 250 entries with speed dialling being available for 8 entries using the keys 2 to 9 and voice dialling being provided for up to 10 entries. Call registers recorded the last 10 missed and received calls and the most recent 20 dialled calls. Support for SMS text messaging included T9 predictive text, templates for common message types and smileys. In addition, it was possible to send and receive basic picture messages with the added advantage of being able to edit the pictures, including the ability to change line formats between black, white and dotted. It was also possible to edit the ring tones with the composer application.

Other applications included a clock with alarm, a calculator, countdown timer, stopwatch, lap time recorder and a calendar to which you could add text notes to identify events against their respective date. A rather unusual application was the inclusion of a thermometer that displayed the approximate temperature of the phone's surroundings in either degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. A total of five games were also included and these were Snake II, Space Impact, Bantumi, Pairs II and Bumper.

An infra-red port provided external connectivity for exchanging information with compatible mobiles and other devices. Internet access was supported via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.1 browser running over a circuit switched data (CSD) service. With CSD a dedicated connection has to be established to a WAP gateway service provider which then gave access to WAP compatible web sites and services.

A limited range of exchangeable Xpress-on external shells was also available in

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Dimensions = 105.5 x 47.5 x 22.5 mm
Weight = 92 g
Battery life = 3.8 hours talk time, 170 hours standby

   

Nokia_9210i_(closed)

Nokia_9210e_(open)

Nokia 9210i

The Nokia 9210i (Nokia firmware code RAE-5N) was the third generation of the Communicator range which had begun with the Nokia 9000. It was released in 2002 and differed from its predecessor generation, the Nokia 9110, by virtue of its colour screen, adoption of the Symbian Operating System and the use of an ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) CPU.

In common with the Nokia 9000 (see separate entry), the Nokia 9210i used a phone interface when closed (upper picture) and a communicator interface when opened to reveal the full QWERTY keyboard (lower Picture).

The main display was a TFT type offering 4096 colours with a resolution of 640 x 200 pixels. Internally it used a 32-bit 52MHz ARM9 RISC CPU running Symbian OS v6.0 with 40MB of memory comprising 16MB for applications, 16MB of user memory and 8MB for execution. A 64MB memory extension card was also available as an accessory.

The Nokia 9210i provided Internet access via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.1 browser operating over a circuit switched data (CSD) connection. This required a dedicated dial-up connection to be made to a WAP gateway service offered by network providers. The browser could support frames, JavaScript and SSL (v3). In addition, an infra-red port was provided for exchange information between other mobiles, PCs and peripherals.

The Nokia 9210i included a calendar with task lists, clock with world time and an alarm, a calculator, office applications that included email, word processor, spreadsheets, and charts that were compatible with Microsoft Office and that could be synchronised to Microsoft Outlook, an imaging application for managing pictures and a RealOnePlayer for playing RealAudio and RealVideo files.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 244 g
Dimensions = 158 x 56 x 27 mm
Battery life = 10 hours talk time, 230 hours standby

   
Sagem_myC-2

Sagem myC-2

The Sagem my C-2 clamshell mobile was introduced in 2003. It has a screen with a resolution of 101x80 pixels, 6 lines, and 256 colours. The phone book could store 250 telephone numbers and associated names and call logs recorded the most recent 10 dialled, missed and received calls. It provided full support for SMS text messaging including T9 predictive text. Access to the Internet was provided via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.2.1 browser that allowed access to WAP compatible websites and the downloading of polyphonic ring tones. In addition the Sagem myC-2 included a picture puzzle game, calculator, currency converter, clock and alarm.

Unfortunately nothing else is known about the features or performance of this mobile.


GSM 900 / 1800 dual band

Weight = 90 g
Dimensions = 82 x 42 x 23 mm
Battery life = 3 hours talk time, 190 hours standby

   
Sagem_myX-2

Sagem myX-2

Sagem Communication is a French company, headquartered in Paris, involved in communication systems and consumer electronics. The Sagem myX-2 was released in 2003. It has a 101 x 80 pixel, 6 lines, 256 colour display with a screensaver and choice of backgrounds. The phone book could store up to 250 telephone numbers and associated names. A call register recorded the 20 most recent dialled, missed and called numbers. Personalisation of the mobile was achieved by changing the front and back covers and also by downloading polyphonic ring tones, wallpapers and animated screen savers. The Sagem myX-2 supported both text and picture messaging with T9 predictive text.

Additional features included a clock with alarm, calculator, currency converter and a picture puzzle game comprising picture segments (up to 25) that had to be moved around to create the final complete image. Finally, internet connectivity at speeds up to 48.3 kbps was supported via a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 1.2.1 browser which allowed access to WAP compatible websites and services.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 89 g
Dimensions = 99 x 45 x 21 mm
Battery life = 5 hours talk time, 340 hours standby

   
Siemens_Xelibri_X4

Siemens Xelibri X4

The Siemens Mobile Phone Division was established in 1985 with the launch of their C1 analogue mobile phone. In 2000 Siemens acquired the Bosch mobile phone division but in 2005 Siemens sold its mobile phone division to Taiwanese company BenQ which was permitted to continue using the Siemens brand name. Siemens launched a fashion orientated range of mobile phones in 2003. The plan was to release collections of four mobiles every six months. The first of these was launched in March 2003 and termed Space on Earth comprising the Xelibri 1 to 4. The second collection was released in October 2003 and was called the Fashion Extravaganza comprising the Xelibri 5 to 8. The Xelibri X4 shown here was launched in 2003 as part of the first collection and had a very unusual casing design which is flat on the top and tapers to a sharp point at the bottom; the numerical keypad is arranged in a V formation.

These phones were designed by top designers, were marketed as luxury fashion items, carried a high price tag and were promoted by a high profile marketing campaign. However, the range was withdrawn in 2004 following poor sales. A total of 720,000 mobiles were sold but this represented less than 2% of Siemens mobile phone business. Interestingly the Siemens logo only appeared on the battery cover.

Despite the eye catching external appearance, these phones actually only offered a basic set of features for the time. Its 5 line monochrome screen had a resolution of 101 x 65 pixels. The phone book could store up to 100 telephone numbers and associated names and a call registered recorded the last 10 dialled, missed and received calls. The Xelibri X4 could play polyphonic ring tones and supported SMS text messaging with T9 predictive text.


GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 71 g
Dimensions = 99 x 53 x 19 mm
Battery life = 4 hours talk time, 200 hours standby

   
Motorola_MotoFone_F3

Motorola MotoFone F3

The Motorola F3, known as the MotoFone, was released in 2006. It is of a candy bar style and was specifically designed for use within developing countries. As a consequence it has limited functionality but is rugged and offers a long battery life. However, it was cheap, being available for as little as £15 on a pay as you go tariff.

With the F3, Motorola introduced their ClearVision display making it the first mobile to use electronic paper in its screen. The lack of glass in the screen allows for the phone to be very thin however, it offers good visibility in both bright sun light and dim conditions. Nevertheless, the display is restrictive in terms of only allowing 2 lines of 6 characters plus fixed icons despite its 34 x 43 mm size. This in turn necessitated a different style of user interface which drew criticism for being difficult to use. It featured a clock with alarm, the choice of 8 ring tones and the ability to send and receive SMS text messages.

GSM900 / GSM1800 dual band

Weight = 70g
Dimensions = 47 x 114 x 9 mm
Battery life = 4.5 hours talk time, 300 hours standby

   

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